History Of Indonesia
Indonesia is one country in South-East Asia, located in the gulf that separates the Middle East Asia from Australia, a strategic trade route.
Geologically it formed in the Pleistocene, but the present structure dates back to the archipelago thaw following the last ice age.
In the Indian texts the beginning of History of Indonesia is charged at the Jawa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra islands around 200 BC . The Tamura kingdom is founded on the island of West Java in the 5th century A.D. and at the same time Buddhism was installed in Indonesia
Middle Age in Indonesia
In the period from the 8th to the 14th century, the islands of Java and Sumatra, reached a level of civilization that allows the establishment of two great empires, and this is considered of great importance from the History of Indonesia experts.
On the southeastern coast of Sumatra, around 670 AD, it spreads the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya, which thanks to its geographical location could not control the trade routes of the Malacca Strait, still one of the economic ways of the most important sea in the world . The apex of its splendor coincides with its maximum expansion to the Malay Peninsula.
In the same period in the central part of the island of Java, he is developing the kingdom of Sailendra, known to have erected the monument of Borobudur. The monument Borubudur, is the most important Buddhist monument in history of Indonesia concerning the Mahayana school. It is located 40 kilometers north-west of Yogyakarta, and was built between 750 and 850 AD. The name comes from the Sanskrit “Vihara Buddha Ur”, which can be literally translated as “the Buddhist temple on the mountain” . Still it appears to be one of the most important attractions
Around the 14th century, it spreads the kingdom of Majapahit, in what is the eastern part of Java island. Gajah Mada is remembered for being the most important leader of the empire in the history of the archipelago. Held power between 1331 and 1364, entering into several alliances with the people who lived both the Malay archipelago as Indonesia. It was the first emperor to have drawn up a codification of the laws implemented on the island. It is also remembered for a literary composition, the Sumpah Palapa
The arrival of Islam
In History of Indonesia Islam comes towards the 12th century, spread by the Arab merchants that during this period begin to travel the coasts of Southeast Asia, deeply marking the religious history of the country. But, if it succeeds in supplanting Hinduism in the late 16th century in Java and Sumatra, it is unable to Bali, which will continue to remain a Hindu majority.
In the archipelago between the 16th and 17th century also began to take soil Christian creeds, as a result of the first European arrivals.
Since 1602, the Dutch are established on the archipelago, taking advantage particularly the splitting into small kingdoms caused by the Majapahit empire. For three hundred years, unless the period of Anglo-British war, the Dutch reign of one of the richest colonial possessions of the world. The exception in this context is represented by Timor, which colonized by Portugal, it remains under its legislation until 1975, when it was occupied by Indonesia, which renamed East Timor.
During the first decade of the twentieth century, it quickly forms an Indonesian independence movement which is particularly developed between the two world wars, and that will mark the contemporary history of the country. The leaders of the movement came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands. Many, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno (1945-1967), were imprisoned for political activities that took place at the time.
On 17 August 1945, Sukarno, along with the Japanese, is organizing the National Committee of Independence and unilaterally declared the independence of the country. Sukarno and Muhammad Hatta is proclaimed President becomes Vice President. For four years the Dutch military will try to reoccupy Indonesia, but in the face of international pressure will recognize the country in 1949.
In subsequent years, the tensions between the Communist Party and the military junta culminated in a coup (September 30, 1965), which failed, culminating in the murder of six Indonesian generals. Is quickly arranged a counter-coup led by General Suharto which results in the killing of hundreds of thousands of communists. In 1967 he manages to win the presidency. From this moment the history of Indonesia can be said that has entered the stage of contemporary history: starting foreign investment, crucial for the economic growth that takes place on the archipelago over the next three decades, which will result in a development of the country especially for tourism.
However between 1997 and 1998, the country’s economy collapses due to the financial crisis affecting the whole of South East Asia region. The crisis will exacerbate popular discontent towards the general Suharto, accused of corruption bargain. May 21, 1998, President Suharto resigned her commission.
1999 was marked by riots in East Timor, which is followed by the brutal repression by the Jakarta government also causes the intervention of the United Nations.
With the terrorist attack on 11 September 2001, the Pentagon has sought strengthened cooperation with Indonesia in the fight against terrorism.
In April 2002, Banana Gusmao, the East Timorese independence leader gets 83% of the votes, and on May 19 the same year, in the presence of UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, Timor declared independence.
Indonesia continues to be the victim of numerous crises including: the rebellion of the province of Aceh: an area rich in gas and oil on the end of Sumatra, claiming its own independence, and attacks in Bali in October 2002. with Aceh rebels signed an agreement in Geneva on 9 December 2002 for a truce. However, this agreement did not put an end to the tensions that regularly recur.
There were many introduced reforms, including the direct election of the president, which was held for the first time in 2004, and that led to power Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
Political tensions and economic, social malcontents and natural disasters like the 2004 Tsunami, do not facilitate the country’s economy, largely dependent on tourism. The presence of terrorist cells that refer to the matrix of al-Qaeda, has helped create discomfort among religious groups in the past had always lived together without problems.
In the early months of 2005, Indonesia and Malaysia have clashed politically over the ownership of offshore fields in the Ambalat area, but it is unlikely that there will be an armed conflict.